Medical Journal Articles

The following journal articles, abstracts and editorials may be of interest to physicians considering EKG testing in Young Adults.

1.   Electrocardiogram interpretation in NCAA athletes: Comparison of the ‘Seattle’ and ‘International’ criteria, Journal of Electrocardiology, 2019 

2.  Outcomes of Cardiac Screening in Adolescent Soccer Players, New England Journal of Medicine, August 2018 

3.  Event Risk in Children With WPW Syndrome, American College of Cardiology, April 2018 

4.   Study Shows moderate exercise may aid HCM patients, The JAMA Network, March 2017 

5.  Pre-participation CV evaluation for athletic participants to prevent SCD: Position paper from the EHRA , EACPR, branches of the ESC, europace 2016


7.  Electrocardiographic Screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes, The American Journal of Cardiology,  Sept. 2016

8.  An Electrocardiogram-Based Risk Equation for Incident Cardiovascular Disease From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, JAMA, August 2016

9.  Why cardiovascular screening in young athletes can save lives: a critical review, BJSM, July 15, 2016 

10.  Interassociation Consensus Statement on Cardiovascular Care of College Student-Athletes, American College of Cardiology 

11.  Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young, AHA Journals, 2016 

12.   Is There a Reason Why NBA Athletes Have Higher Rates of Sudden Cardiac Death? JAMA Cardiology, February 2016

13.  Use of Electrocardiogram as Part of the Preparticipation Examination, Pediatrics Annals, January 2016

14.  Abstract 16848: Evolving Standards for Athlete ECG Interpretation Result in Declining Abnormal Rates

15.   NCAA Cardiac Health, January 2014 

16.  Cardiac Screening before Participation in Sports — Polling Results, New England Journal of Medicine, March 2014

17.  Athletes sudden heart deaths eclipse past estimates: study,, July 2014

18. Cardiovascular screening in adolescents and young adults, BJSM, July 2014

19. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes, JACC, March 2013

20.   Outcomes from sudden cardiac arrest in US high schools: a 2-year prospective study from the National Registry for AED Use in Sports,, November 2013

21. Cardiac Screening before Participation in Sports, The New England Journal of Medicine, November 2013

22. The ECG's that will be read around the world and save lives of sports people, BJSM Seattle, January 2013. 

23.  ECG Reveals Cardiac Problems in a Third of College Athletes PDF

24.  Finding Young Athletes' Heart Defects by 12-Lead ECG PDF

25.  Sudden Death in Athletes May Be Undercounted

26.  Sudden Death in Athletes: Debate Continues

27.  NCAA-Funded Study Supports Screening NCAA Athletes for Sudden Cardiac Death Risk, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

28.  Inter-Association Task Force Recommendations on Emergency Preparedness and Management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in High School and College Athletic Programs: A Consensus Statement, Journal of Athletic Training

29.  NCAA Heart Disease in Student-Athletes and NCAA Cardiac 3-Minute Drill

30. Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Arrest. Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics March 2012.  And from Medpage Today:

31.  Key Concepts in the Evaluation of Screening Approaches for Heart Disease in Children and Adolescents : A Science Advisory From the American Heart Assocation. Journal of American Heart Ass. April 2012.pdf

32.  Interpretation of the electrocardiogram of young athletes, American Heart Association, December 2012

33. ECG Before Starting Stimulants for ADHD Called a Cost-Effective Screen PDF

34.  Trends in sudden cardiovascular death in young competitive athletes after implementation of a pre participation screening program Corrado et al; JAMA 2006;296:1953-1601. (Report of the Italian experience using ECG to reduce sudden death rate)

35.  Feasibility and findings of large-scale electrocardiographic screening in young adults: Data from 32,561 subjects by Joseph Marek, MD, Vince Bufalino, MD, Johneen Davis, BSN, MBA, Kathleen Marek, BSN, Apoor Gami, MD, MSc, FHRS, William Stephan, MD, Frank Zimmerman, MD Heart Rhythm, October 2011

36.  Accuracy of Interpretation of Preparticipation Electrocardiograms J Pediatr July, 2011 PDF

37.  Incidence of Sudden Cardiac Death in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes. Harmon K. et al DOI: 10.1161/CirculationAHA.110. 004622

38. National Electrocardiography Screening for Competitive Athletes: Feasible in the United States? Editorial by Maron, BJ Ann Int Med. 2010;152:324-326

39. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Clinically Pertinent Controversies and Uncertainties; John A. Elefteriades, and Emily A. Farkas;J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2010;55;841-857

40. Cost-Effectiveness of Electrocardiography Screening in Young Adults; Wheeler, MT et al; Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152:276-286

41. Cardiovascular Screening in College Athletes With and Without Electrocardiography Baggish AL, et al; Ann Intern Med. 2010; 152:269-275

42. Clinical Review: Pre-participation screening for cardiovascular abnormalities in young competitive athletes Papadakis et al; BMJ 2008; 337:a1596

43.Pre-participation Screening of Young Competitive Athletes for the Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death Corrado et al; J. AM. Coll. Cardiol. 2008; 52:1981-9.

44.Preliminary Findings in ECG Screening in 9,125 Young Adults Marek, etal. Circulation. 2007;116:II_845.

45. Inter-Association Task Force recommendations on emergency preparedness and management of Sudden Cardiac Arrest in high school and college athletic programs, Journal of Athletic Training, March 2007

46. Postmortem Long QT Syndrome Genetic Testing for Sudden Unexplained Death in the Young David J. Tester, and Michael J. Ackerman doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.10.010 published online Dec 28, 2006; J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

47. Recommendations for competitive sports participation in athletes with cardiovascular disease. A consensus document from the Study Group of Sports Cardiology of the Working Group of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology, and the Working Group of Myocardial and pericardial disease of the European Society of Cardiology Pelliccia et al; Eur. Heart J. 2005; 26:1422-45.

48.36th Bethesda Conference: eligibility recommendations for competitive athletes with cardiovascular abnormalities Maron et al; J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 2005; 45:2-63.

49. Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical demographic and pathological profiles Maron et al; JAMA 1996; 276:199-204. (Demonstrates failure of current methods of screening)

Also, please consider using this Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Assessment for your patients. It was developed by Dr. Robert Campbell, Chief Medical Officer, The Children's Sibley Heart Center.Download one with ICD 9 Codes.